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- Tuberculosis (TB) is an air-borne disease caused by a germ known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. TB is both preventable and curable.
- TB is the number 1 infectious killer disease in the world and among the top 10 causes of death worldwide.
- One-quarter of the world’s population, (approximately 1.9 billion people) is infected with TB (live with
the causative organism, in a dormant/inactive state).
- Every year, it is estimated that 10 million people develop active TB disease following the re-activation of
the dormant organism or from community transmission of active forms of the organism. Of these,
approximately 1.1 million are children and 860,000 people living with HIV.
- 3 million persons miss out on care and treatment annually, another 500,000 develop a drug-resistant
form of TB (DR-TB; not curable with usual TB drugs), with only 1 in 3 able to receive the appropriate treatment for DR-TB.
TB facts in Nigeria
Nigeria ranks first in Africa and sixth in the world, accounting for about 4.6% of the global TB burden
Nigeria accounts for about 4.6% of the global TB burden
An estimated 15 Nigerians die each hour due to TB, equivalent to about 347 deaths daily, 10,417 monthly
and 125,000 in a year.
Nigeria’s TB incidence rate is about 219 in a 100,000 population with an estimated total of 467,000
persons who have active TB disease. In 2021, the National TB, Leprosy and Buruli Ulcer Control Program
(NTBLCP) notified 207,785 having a gap of 56% of the estimated cases unidentified.
In 2021 about 2,975 DR-TB cases were diagnosed out of an estimated 21,000 cases in the country, leaving
out more than 80% of the resistant cases missing
Directly Observed Treatment short course (DOTs) clinics for TB treatment and care are available
in up to 50% of health facilities in Nigeria, only 9% of these have facilities for laboratory diagnosis of TB
infection and disease.
TB Disease is often more severe in children less than 15 years, with higher mortality amongst those less
than 5 years. The notification of children with active disease and latent TB has remained abysmally low,
accounting for just 6% (out of the country’s total of 450,000) of all forms of notified TB cases in 2021.
Only about 11% of children with TB disease out of the estimated country total of 77,000 cases were
notified in 2021 by the NTBLCP.
Of the $373 million needed for TB control in Nigeria in the year 2020, only 31% was available to all the
implementers of TB control activities in Nigeria (7% domestic and 24% donor funds), with a 69% funding gap. The 7% domestic contribution is mainly for personnel.
Low case detection and lack of adequate knowledge about TB due to low awareness creation are two of the major challenges facing TB response in Nigeria.
Tuberculosis (TB) screenings are now conducted with portable Digital X-rays (PDX), and TB testing with TB LAMP, Truenat, and Genexpert platforms accross different LGAs in Nigeria
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